➊ Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair

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Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair



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The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Book Summary) - Minute Book Report

This was a period of intense development which saw the U. S ascend to greater echelons of capitalism. The industrial revolution facilitated America with massive provisions like mass production of goods through manufacture, rapid growth of cities, and a greater demand for human resource. The nineteenth century was a period of brilliant technological inventions and practical science that provided a foundation for the expansion of industry. Inventions such as the steam engine, the telegram, photography, the telephone and the Trans Atlantic cable, the airplane, electricity, gas lighting and the electric bulb provided industries with a basis as to how to model their operations.

The iron and steel refinery mill established by Andrew Carnegie was largely responsible for the rapid expansion of the railroad and the emergence of multiple storied buildings. The vast railway network expanded the market for manufactured goods and the emerging buildings led to the growth and expansion of cities Sinclair , The utilization of refined oil rather than steam to run engines created an extensive market for the oil products. Subsequent industrial machinery was designed to run on oil since its combustion provided more power increasing the output of the industries. Late nineteenth century engulfed a period of extreme unrest from workers who held strikes occasionally to protest or demand better wages, treatment or working conditions.

Accidents in the work place occurred frequently and some were fatal. Workers were of the view that their efforts were not respected considering the poor pay they received Sinclair , Hence, by going on strike there was a greater chance for their grievances to be addressed bearing in mind that no body including the Socialist Labor Party advocated for most of the workers since unions were of limited membership Sinclair , Most of the strikes ended up in riots which bore casualties, for example the Haymarket Massacre where a confrontation between the workers and police left 7 fatalities and more than 60 casualties.

Of similar detrimental consequences were the Pennsylvania Homestead Strike and the Pullman Strike in Chicago. The successive governments of late nineteenth century an early twentieth century were marred with controversy and massive corruption Sinclair , Several paradigms support this fact for instance the controversial election rivalry between Grover Cleveland and James G. The novel begins on a high note with the presentation of a Lithuanian wedding party celebrating the union of the main character Jurgis Rudkus and Ona who is the bride. The hosts are however apprehensive on whether the guests will be courteous enough to give a donation which is customary in Lithuanian tradition. Rudkus together with his family travel to America at the end of the 19th century hoping that Rudkus will soon acquire a job and support the family.

When they arrive at their abode in Chicago, Illinois, the reality finally dawns on them that they will have to struggle and work hard in order to make ends meet Sinclair , The fact that they will have to work hard just to get minimum wage instills within them a sense of desperation and urgency to acquire their own house in order to save on rent. The search for an ideal house that is within their budget leads them to a vicious lending scheme that takes away their savings under the pretence that the money is a down payment for a house in the slums.

Consequently, Rudkus together with his family lose their new home as well as their money Sinclair , All family members including the children are compelled to seek employment in order to sustain themselves. Working conditions in the Chicago Stockyards are harsh and the workers are required to submit to their employers regardless of the underpaid wages. Everyone they encounter in the chain of command is corrupt and the exposure to corruption gradually corrupts members of the family as well.

Other family members also succumb to death due to malnutrition and treatable diseases associated with poverty. The prevailing circumstances become too overwhelming for Rudkus and he decides to leave the city Sinclair , After all, he perceives that he can never accomplish his goals in such a capitalistic setting where people are hostile, deceptive and selfish.

Rudkus decides to go to the countryside but soon runs out of work and returns to Chicago. He takes on odd jobs like digging tunnels and also becomes a con man. One evening, he involuntarily ventures into a lecture presided over by an eloquent socialist supporter and he immediately decides where he belongs Sinclair , A fellow socialism supporter offers him a job as the socialist party goes on to gain immense popularity. Sinclair has a number of issues he tries to reveal through his novel The Jungle.

The first and most dominant message in the novel is the demerits associated with capitalism. Sinclair uses the suffering of Rudkus as well as his family as a mirror image of the poor living in a capitalistic society. The novel portrays the American society as ruthless and discriminative to the poor. Upon arriving at the boarding house, Jurgis hears Ona screaming. She is in premature labor , and Marija explains that the family had no money for a doctor. Jurgis convinces a midwife to assist, but it is too little too late; the infant is dead, and with one last look at Jurgis, Ona dies shortly afterward.

The children return with a day's wages; Jurgis spends all of it to get drunk for the night. The next morning, Ona's stepmother begs Jurgis to think of his surviving child. With his son in mind, he endeavors again to gain employment despite his blacklisting. For a time, the family gets by and Jurgis delights in his son's first attempts at speech. One day, Jurgis arrives home to discover that his son had drowned after falling off a rotting boardwalk into the muddy streets. Without shedding a tear, he walks away from Chicago.

Jurgis wanders the countryside while the weather is warm, working, foraging, and stealing for food, shelter, and drink. In the fall, he returns to Chicago, sometimes employed, sometimes a tramp. Afterward, when Jurgis spends the bill at a bar, the bartender cheats him. Jurgis attacks the bartender and is sentenced to prison again, where he once again meets Jack Duane. This time, without a family to anchor him, Jurgis decides to fall in with him.

Jurgis helps Duane mug a well-off man; his split of the loot is worth over twenty times a day's wages from his first job. Though his conscience is pricked by learning of the man's injuries in the next day's papers, he justifies it to himself as necessary in a "dog-eat-dog" world. Jurgis then navigates the world of crime; he learns that this includes a substantial corruption of the police department. He becomes a vote fixer for a wealthy political powerhouse, Mike Scully, and arranges for many new Slavic immigrants to vote according to Scully's wishes—as Jurgis once had.

To influence those men, he had taken a job at a factory, which he continues as a strikebreaker. One night, by chance, he runs into Connor, whom he attacks again. Afterward, he discovers that his buddies cannot fix the trial as Connor is an important figure under Scully. With the help of a friend, he posts and skips bail. With no other options, Jurgis returns to begging and chances upon a woman who had been a guest to his wedding. She tells him where to find Marija, and Jurgis heads to the address to find that it is a brothel being raided by the police. Marija tells him that she was forced to prostitute herself to feed the children after they had gotten sick, and Stanislovas—who had drunk too much and passed out at work—had been eaten by rats.

After their speedy trial and release, Marija tells Jurgis that she cannot leave the brothel as she cannot save money and has become addicted to heroin , as is typical in the brothel's human trafficking. Marija has a customer, so Jurgis leaves and finds a political meeting for a warm place to stay. He begins to nod off. A refined lady gently rouses him, saying, "If you would try to listen, comrade, perhaps you would be interested. Enraptured by his speech, Jurgis seeks out the orator afterward.

The orator asks if he is interested in socialism. A Polish socialist takes him into his home, conversing with him about his life and socialism. Jurgis returns home to Ona's stepmother and passionately converts her to socialism; she placatingly goes along with it only because it seems to motivate him to find work. He finds work in a small hotel that turns out to be run by a state organizer of the Socialist Party. Jurgis passionately dedicates his life to the cause of socialism.

Anti-war and civil rights movements. Sinclair published the book in serial form between February 25, , and November 4, , in Appeal to Reason , the socialist newspaper that had supported Sinclair's undercover investigation the previous year. This investigation had inspired Sinclair to write the novel, but his efforts to publish the series as a book met with resistance. An employee at Macmillan wrote,. I advise without hesitation and unreservedly against the publication of this book which is gloom and horror unrelieved. One feels that what is at the bottom of his fierceness is not nearly so much desire to help the poor as hatred of the rich. Five publishers rejected the work as it was too shocking. All works published in the United States before are in the public domain, [11] so there are free copies of the book available on websites such as Project Gutenberg [12] and Wikisource.

The foreword and introduction say that the commercial editions were censored to make their political message acceptable to capitalist publishers. Upton Sinclair intended to expose "the inferno of exploitation [of the typical American factory worker at the turn of the 20th Century]", [15] but the reading public fixed on food safety as the novel's most pressing issue. Sinclair admitted his celebrity arose "not because the public cared anything about the workers, but simply because the public did not want to eat tubercular beef". Sinclair's account of workers falling into rendering tanks and being ground along with animal parts into "Durham's Pure Leaf Lard" gripped the public.

The poor working conditions, and exploitation of children and women along with men, were taken to expose the corruption in meat packing factories. The British politician Winston Churchill praised the book in a review. In , the book became a target of the Nazi book burnings due to Sinclair's endorsement of socialism. President Theodore Roosevelt had described Sinclair as a "crackpot" because of the writer's socialist positions. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful.

Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth. The president wrote "radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist. Neill and social worker James Bronson Reynolds to go to Chicago to investigate some meat packing facilities. Learning about the visit, owners had their workers thoroughly clean the factories prior to the inspection, but Neill and Reynolds were still revolted by the conditions.

Their oral report to Roosevelt supported much of what Sinclair portrayed in the novel, excepting the claim of workers falling into rendering vats. Roosevelt did not release the Neill—Reynolds Report for publication. His administration submitted it directly to Congress on June 4, Sinclair rejected the legislation, which he considered an unjustified boon to large meat packers. The first film version of the novel was made in , but it has since been lost. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel by Upton Sinclair.

For other uses, see Jungle disambiguation. Active organizations. Defunct organizations. Related topics. The Unfinished Nation. ISBN Du Bois.

He becomes Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair vote fixer for a wealthy Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair powerhouse, Mike Calculus In Physics, and arranges for many new Slavic immigrants to Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair according to Scully's wishes—as Jurgis once had. Hate, greed, and jealousy motivate and lead him to Occupational Therapy Career Essay as a tyrant over the people he Summary Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair. Their home!

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