⌛ Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps
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Alfred Hitchcock - The 39 Steps (1935) [Thriller]
The first writer assigned to the picture, James Costigan , quarreled with the director, who asked for him to be paid off. Then Ernest Lehman agreed to work on the script. Lehman felt the story should focus on the American spy, and left out the double agent's jailbreak. Lehman left the film too, and Hitchcock asked old friend Norman Lloyd to help him write a long treatment. Lloyd, like Universal, was concerned that Hitchcock's failing health meant that the movie might not get made.
When Hitchcock suggested moving straight on to the screenplay, Lloyd objected saying they were unprepared. Hitchcock reacted angrily, fired Lloyd, and worked on the treatment himself. After a while, Hitchcock accepted that he needed another writer to work with him, and Universal suggested Dave Freeman , helped Hitchcock complete the treatment and wrote the screenplay. He wrote about his experiences in the book The Last Days of Alfred Hitchcock, which includes his completed screenplay.
The circumstances surrounding Hitchcock's retirement were given by producer Hilton A. Green during the documentary Plotting "Family Plot". According to Green, during pre-production for The Short Night Hitchcock met Green to tell him that his poor health would prevent him from making the film that was to be the follow-up to Family Plot. After trying to talk Hitchcock out of his decision, Green agreed to Hitchcock's request to bring the news of his decision to retire to studio head Lew Wasserman , a long-time friend of Hitchcock.
Hitchcock very much wanted to direct a follow-up to The 39 Steps , and he felt that Greenmantle by John Buchan was a superior book. He proposed that the film would star Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman , but the rights from the Buchan estate proved too expensive. In the late s, he planned an adaptation of Henry Cecil 's novel No Bail for the Judge, about a London barrister who, with the assistance of a gentleman thief, has to defend her father, a High Court judge, when he is accused of murdering a prostitute. In a change of pace from his usual blonde actresses, Audrey Hepburn would have played the barrister, with Laurence Harvey as the thief, and John Williams as the Hepburn character's father. Some sources, including Writing with Hitchcock author Steven DeRosa say that Hitchcock's interest in the novel started in the summer of while filming To Catch a Thief , and that Hitchcock hoped to have John Michael Hayes write the screenplay.
Hepburn was an admirer of Hitchcock's work and had long wanted to appear in one of his films. Samuel A. Taylor , scenarist for Vertigo and Topaz , wrote the screenplay after Ernest Lehman rejected it. The Taylor screenplay included a scene, not in the original novel, where the heroine disguises herself as a prostitute and has to fend off a rapist. Hepburn left the film, partly because of the near-rape scene, but primarily due to a pregnancy.
Hepburn suffered a miscarriage during the filming of The Unforgiven then gave birth to son Sean Ferrer in July Harvey still ended up working with Hitchcock in , however, on an episode that Hitchcock directed of Alfred Hitchcock Presents Without Hepburn, the project didn't have the same appeal for Hitchcock. Changes in British law concerning prostitution and entrapment - changes which took place after the novel was published - made some aspects of the screenplay implausible.
In the fall of , a Paramount publicity brochure titled "Success in the Sixties! Although Hitchcock made Frenzy , that film's title and some plot points came from an idea Hitchcock had a few years earlier for a prequel to Shadow of a Doubt Hitchcock approached many writers including Samuel A. Taylor and Alec Coppel , but in the end engaged an old friend, Benn W. Levy to flesh out his sketchy idea. The story would have revolved around a young, handsome bodybuilder inspired by Neville Heath who lures young women to their deaths, a version of the character known as 'Merry Widow Murderer' in Shadow of a Doubt The New York police set a trap for him, with a policewoman posing as a potential victim.
The script was based around three crescendos dictated by Hitchcock: the first was a murder by a waterfall; the second murder would take place on a mothballed warship; and the finale, which would take place at an oil refinery with brightly coloured drums. Though Truffaut admired the script, he felt uneasy about its relentless sex and violence. Unlike Psycho , these elements would not be hidden behind the respectable veneer of murder mystery and psychological suspense, and the killer would be the main character, the hero, the eyes of the audience. The film - alternatively known as Frenzy or the more "sixties"-esque Kaleidoscope - was not made.
Robert Thomas, follows a young married couple on holiday in the Alps. The wife disappears, and after a prolonged search the police bring back someone they claim to be her; she even says she is the man's wife, but the man has never seen her before. As with Greenmantle a quarter of a century earlier, the rights were elusive. But also the story was dated, very much rooted in the s, and the plot involved a villain whose blind mother hypnotizes the hero.
Hitchcock, in interviews, said that he felt that the portrayal of hypnosis did not work on film, and that films that attempted this portrayal, in Hitchcock's opinion, turned out poorly. In the late s, Hitchcock had plans to make a modernized version of Hamlet. Hitchcock's Shakespearean vision was of a "psychological melodrama" set in contemporary England, and starring Cary Grant in the title role. The project was scrapped when Hitchcock's studio caught wind of a potential lawsuit from a professor who had already written a modern-day version of Hamlet. A New York City hotel run by an Italian immigrant and his family who, unknown to him, are using the hotel as cover for crimes, including the theft of a valuable coin from a guest of the hotel.
The Italian screenwriters struggled with the story, and were not helped by the language barrier. Universal Studios were not keen on the idea and persuaded Hitchcock to move on to something else. Hitchcock had long desired to turn J. Barrie 's play Mary Rose into a film. In , after working together on Marnie , Hitchcock asked Jay Presson Allen to adapt the play into a screenplay. Whether or not this was actually true, Lew Wasserman was not keen on the project, though Hitchcock never gave up hope of one day filming it. Hitchcock, a long-time admirer of Shearer's acting, had sought for years to find a suitable project for her. Mayer , who selected Mervyn LeRoy to produce the film.
Years later, Hitchcock made the statement about the lack of true Hollywood leading ladies with the quote, "Where are the Norma Shearers? In , Hitchcock was brought in as a supervising director for a documentary film about Nazi crimes and Nazi concentration camps. Cold War developments meant that the USSR segment was withdrawn, and the film remained uncompleted, with some footage kept in the collection of the Imperial War Museum. The book follows a RAF V bomber crew given an order to drop a nuclear bomb, only to have the order aborted. Unfortunately, the bomb is resisting attempts to defuse it and the plane can only stay in flight for a limited time.
He directed Leo G. Greet appeared in more Hitchcock films than anyone other than Hitchcock himself. However, in both Lifeboat and Dial M for Murder , he can be seen in photographs. Rebecca and Foreign Correspondent were both so nominated at the 13th Academy Award in while the former won the award. He was the first to be shown a galley of Ira Levin's "Rosemary's Baby. The film adaptation became a sensation with Castle producing and Roman Polanski directing. Directed four Oscar Best Picture nominees all in the s alone: Rebecca which won , Foreign Correspondent , Suspicion and Spellbound However, none of these are often regarded as among his best efforts by peers or critics.
All copies of The White Shadow were thought to be lost but 3 reels containing the first half of the film were found in the vaults of the New Zealand Film Archive in He has directed eight films that have been selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant: Rebecca , Shadow of a Doubt , Notorious , Rear Window , Vertigo , North by Northwest , Psycho and The Birds Thanks to fellow filmmaker Francois Truffaut, Alfred Hitchcock finally began being taken seriously as an artistic film director from the mid s to this day.
This was courtesy of the book which Truffaut had published, which consists of the various discussions concerning Hitchcock's career. In spite of his rather stolid exterior, Hitchcock was known to his family and close associates for his sense of humor. Home movie footage has recently surfaced, showing the director larking about with various people. Hitchcock stated in an interview that working and training to become a director in Germany, was the best experience he could have had. Throughout their long and fruitful collaboration, Hitchcock always relied upon Mrs. Alma Hitchcock having the final word in choosing their next film project.
For interviews, the director made it known that he wouldn't allow any questions regarding his private life. A good deal of controversy has surfaced, regarding Hitchcock's alleged treatment of leading lady Tippi Hedren. She maintains that Hitchcock tried to possess and control her whilst under contract to him. His latter years were marred by ill health and this affected Hitchcock's film output. According to fellow director Roy Ward Baker when he worked for him, Hitchcock was meticulous in every detail of his productions.
Before entering the film industry, Hitchcock had ambitions toward becoming an engineer. Although his wife Alma was an excellent cook, Hitchcock liked to give the Mrs. His Hollywood restaurant of choice was Chasen's, where he reserved a booth every Thursday night when he was in town for over 30 years. Hitchcock had a love-hate relationship with food, which led him to alternately binge-eat and then crash-diet for much of his life. He was phobic about eggs, especially with runny yolks, and wouldn't eat them on their own in any form. His other food fears included cheese and cold deli meats. Prior to making 'North by North West' the studio wanted Hitchcock to do the Wreck of Mary Deare but screenwriter Ernest Lehman couldn't see how it could be done and wanted to leave, Hitch said stay and do something without telling the studio.
The claim was unfounded. After their falling-out in early during the making of Marnie , Hitchcock tried to mend fences again with Tippi Hedren. They had business lunches on on June 30, August 19 and December 16, The idea was to cast her in "Mary Rose". When this project was rejected by Universal, Hitchcock considered casting Hedren alongside Paul Newman in Torn Curtain , but Hedren was definite about her never wanting to work with Hitchcock again, so Julie Andrews was cast instead.
There is a dreadful story that I hate actors. Imagine anyone hating James Stewart Jack L. I can't imagine how such a rumor began. Of course it may possibly be because I was once quoted as saying that actors are cattle. My actor friends know I would never be capable of such a thoughtless, rude and unfeeling remark, that I would never call them cattle What I probably said was that actors should be treated like cattle. My appearance called for me to walk up the stairs of the rooming house. Since my walk-ons in subsequent pictures would be equally strenuous - boarding buses, playing chess, etc. Casting, with an unusual lack of perception, hired this fat man! The length of a film should be directly related to the endurance of the human bladder.
To me, Psycho was a big comedy. Had to be. Even my failures make money and become classics a year after I make them. The first of the four is a film editor, the second is a scriptwriter, the third is the mother of my daughter Pat [ Patricia Hitchcock ], and the fourth is as fine a cook as ever performed miracles in a domestic kitchen. And their names are Alma Reville. There is nothing quite so good as a burial at sea. It is simple, tidy, and not very incriminating. Man does not live by murder alone. He needs affection, approval, encouragement and, occasionally, a hearty meal. But I don't give any guarantee what she will do on a taxi's back seat. The best you can hope for is to referee.
The paperback is very interesting but I find it will never replace the hardcover book -- it makes a very poor doorstop. Film your murders like love scenes, and film your love scenes like murders. I am a typed director. If I made Cinderella , the audience would immediately be looking for a body in the coach. If it's a good movie, the sound could go off and the audience would still have a perfectly clear idea of what was going on. A good film is when the price of the dinner, the theatre admission and the babysitter were worth it.
In feature films the director is God; in documentary films God is the director. Cary Grant is the only actor I ever loved in my whole life. If he doesn't like an actor he just tears him up. Blondes make the best victims. They're like virgin snow that shows up the bloody footprints. I am scared easily, here is a list of my adrenaline-production: 1: small children, 2: policemen, 3: high places, 4: that my next movie will not be as good as the last one. When an actor comes to me and wants to discuss his character, I say, "It's in the script". If he says, "But what's my motivation? I don't understand why we have to experiment with film. I think everything should be done on paper.
By Hitchcock was aware that he had reached his peak in Britain. Selznick offered him a concrete proposal to make a film based on the sinking of RMS Titanic , which was eventually shelved, but Selznick persuaded Hitchcock to come to Hollywood. In July , Hitchcock flew to New York, and found that he was already a celebrity; he was featured in magazines and gave interviews to radio stations. Selznick signed Hitchcock to a seven-year contract beginning in April ,  and the Hitchcocks moved to Hollywood.
He and his wife Alma kept a low profile, and were not interested in attending parties or being celebrities. Although Hitchcock and Selznick respected each other, their working arrangements were sometimes difficult. Selznick suffered from constant financial problems, and Hitchcock was often unhappy about Selznick's creative control and interference over his films. Selznick was also displeased with Hitchcock's method of shooting just what was in the script, and nothing more, which meant that the film could not be cut and remade differently at a later time. Goldwyn had also negotiated with Hitchcock on a possible contract, only to be outbid by Selznick.
In a later interview, Hitchcock said: "[Selznick] was the Big Producer. Producer was king. The most flattering thing Mr. Selznick ever said about me—and it shows you the amount of control—he said I was the 'only director' he'd 'trust with a film'. Hitchcock approached American cinema cautiously; his first American film was set in England in which the "Americanness" of the characters was incidental:  Rebecca was set in a Hollywood version of England's Cornwall and based on a novel by English novelist Daphne du Maurier. Selznick insisted on a faithful adaptation of the book, and disagreed with Hitchcock with the use of humour.
She lives in his large English country house , and struggles with the lingering reputation of his elegant and worldly first wife Rebecca, who died under mysterious circumstances. Hitchcock received his first nomination for Best Director , his first of five such nominations. It was nominated for Best Picture that year. Hitchcock felt uneasy living and working in Hollywood while Britain was at war ; his concern resulted in a film that overtly supported the British war effort. By mixing footage of European scenes with scenes filmed on a Hollywood backlot , the film avoided direct references to Nazism , Nazi Germany , and Germans, to comply with the Motion Picture Production Code at the time.
In September the Hitchcocks bought the acre 0. Smith to the bleak film noir Shadow of a Doubt Suspicion marked Hitchcock's first film as a producer and director. It is set in England; Hitchcock used the north coast of Santa Cruz for the English coastline sequence. The film is the first of four in which Cary Grant was cast by Hitchcock, and it is one of the rare occasions that Grant plays a sinister character. Grant's character is actually a killer, as per written in the book, Before the Fact by Francis Iles , but the studio felt that Grant's image would be tarnished by that.
Hitchcock therefore settled for an ambiguous finale, although he would have preferred to end with the wife's murder. Saboteur is the first of two films that Hitchcock made for Universal Studios during the decade. Hitchcock was forced by Universal to use Universal contract player Robert Cummings and Priscilla Lane , a freelancer who signed a one-picture deal with the studio, both known for their work in comedies and light dramas. Hitchcock took a three-day tour of New York City to scout for Saboteur ' s filming locations.
Back in England, Hitchcock's mother Emma was severely ill; she died on 26 September at age Hitchcock never spoke publicly about his mother, but his assistant said that he admired her. He was overweight and suffering from back aches. His New Year's resolution in was to take his diet seriously with the help of a physician. Hitchcock filmed extensively on location, this time in the Northern California city of Santa Rosa.
At 20th Century Fox , Hitchcock approached John Steinbeck with an idea for a film, which recorded the experiences of the survivors of a German U-boat attack. Steinbeck began work on the script for what would become Lifeboat However, Steinbeck was unhappy with the film and asked that his name be removed from the credits, to no avail. The idea was rewritten as a short story by Harry Sylvester and published in Collier's in The action sequences were shot in a small boat in the studio water tank. The locale posed problems for Hitchcock's traditional cameo appearance; it was solved by having Hitchcock's image appear in a newspaper that William Bendix is reading in the boat, showing the director in a before-and-after advertisement for "Reduco-Obesity Slayer".
He told Truffaut in At the time, I was on a strenuous diet, painfully working my way from three hundred to two hundred pounds. So I decided to immortalize my loss and get my bit part by posing for "before" and "after" pictures. I was literally submerged by letters from fat people who wanted to know where and how they could get Reduco. Hitchcock's typical dinner before his weight loss had been a roast chicken, boiled ham, potatoes, bread, vegetables, relishes, salad, dessert, a bottle of wine and some brandy. To lose weight, his diet consisted of black coffee for breakfast and lunch, and steak and salad for dinner,  but it was hard to maintain; Donald Spoto wrote that his weight fluctuated considerably over the next 40 years. At the end of , despite the weight loss, the Occidental Insurance Company of Los Angeles refused his application for life insurance.
I knew that if I did nothing, I'd regret it for the rest of my life Hitchcock returned to the UK for an extended visit in late and early While there he made two short propaganda films , Bon Voyage and Aventure Malgache , for the Ministry of Information. In June and July , Hitchcock served as "treatment advisor" on a Holocaust documentary that used Allied Forces footage of the liberation of Nazi concentration camps. The film was assembled in London and produced by Sidney Bernstein of the Ministry of Information, who brought Hitchcock a friend of his on board. It was originally intended to be broadcast to the Germans, but the British government deemed it too traumatic to be shown to a shocked post-war population.
Instead, it was transferred in from the British War Office film vaults to London's Imperial War Museum and remained unreleased until , when an edited version was broadcast as an episode of PBS Frontline , under the title the Imperial War Museum had given it: Memory of the Camps. Anthony Edwardes under the treatment of analyst Dr. Peterson Ingrid Bergman , who falls in love with him while trying to unlock his repressed past. For added novelty and impact, the climactic gunshot was hand-coloured red on some copies of the black-and-white film. The spy film Notorious followed next in His prescient use of uranium as a plot device led to him being briefly placed under surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Selznick complained that the notion was "science fiction", only to be confronted by the news of the detonation of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in August Hitchcock formed an independent production company, Transatlantic Pictures , with his friend Sidney Bernstein. He made two films with Transatlantic, one of which was his first colour film. With Rope , Hitchcock experimented with marshalling suspense in a confined environment, as he had done earlier with Lifeboat. Some transitions between reels were hidden by having a dark object fill the entire screen for a moment. Hitchcock used those points to hide the cut, and began the next take with the camera in the same place.
The film features James Stewart in the leading role, and was the first of four films that Stewart made with Hitchcock. It was inspired by the Leopold and Loeb case of the s. Under Capricorn , set in 19th-century Australia, also uses the short-lived technique of long takes, but to a more limited extent. He again used Technicolor in this production, then returned to black-and-white for several years. Transatlantic Pictures became inactive after the last two films. His thriller Strangers on a Train was based on the novel of the same name by Patricia Highsmith.
Hitchcock combined many elements from his preceding films. He approached Dashiell Hammett to write the dialogue, but Raymond Chandler took over, then left over disagreements with the director. In the film, two men casually meet, one of whom speculates on a foolproof method to murder; he suggests that two people, each wishing to do away with someone, should each perform the other's murder. Farley Granger 's role was as the innocent victim of the scheme, while Robert Walker , previously known for "boy-next-door" roles, played the villain. She kills the hired assassin in self-defence, so Milland manipulates the evidence to make it look like murder. Stewart's character is a photographer called Jeff based on Robert Capa who must temporarily use a wheelchair.
Out of boredom, he begins observing his neighbours across the courtyard, then becomes convinced that one of them Raymond Burr has murdered his wife. Jeff eventually manages to convince his policeman buddy Wendell Corey and his girlfriend Kelly. As with Lifeboat and Rope , the principal characters are depicted in confined or cramped quarters, in this case Stewart's studio apartment. Hitchcock uses close-ups of Stewart's face to show his character's reactions, "from the comic voyeurism directed at his neighbours to his helpless terror watching Kelly and Burr in the villain's apartment".
From to , Hitchcock was the host of the television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents. The title-sequence of the show pictured a minimalist caricature of his profile he drew it himself; it is composed of only nine strokes , which his real silhouette then filled. His introductions always included some sort of wry humour, such as the description of a recent multi-person execution hampered by having only one electric chair , while two are shown with a sign "Two chairs—no waiting! In the s, a new version of Alfred Hitchcock Presents was produced for television, making use of Hitchcock's original introductions in a colourised form.
In Hitchcock became a United States citizen. Grant plays retired thief John Robie, who becomes the prime suspect for a spate of robberies in the Riviera. A thrill-seeking American heiress played by Kelly surmises his true identity and tries to seduce him. They play a couple whose son is kidnapped to prevent them from interfering with an assassination. As in the film, the climax takes place at the Royal Albert Hall. This was the only film of Hitchcock to star Henry Fonda , playing a Stork Club musician mistaken for a liquor store thief, who is arrested and tried for robbery while his wife Vera Miles emotionally collapses under the strain. Hitchcock told Truffaut that his lifelong fear of the police attracted him to the subject and was embedded in many scenes.
While directing episodes for Alfred Hitchcock Presents during the summer of , Hitchcock was admitted to hospital for hernia and gallstones , and had to have his gallbladder removed. Following a successful surgery, he immediately returned to work to prepare for his next project. He had wanted Vera Miles to play the lead, but she was pregnant. He told Oriana Fallaci : "I was offering her a big part, the chance to become a beautiful sophisticated blonde, a real actress. We'd have spent a heap of dollars on it, and she has the bad taste to get pregnant. I hate pregnant women, because then they have children. In Vertigo , Stewart plays Scottie, a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia , who becomes obsessed with a woman he has been hired to shadow Novak.
Scottie's obsession leads to tragedy, and this time Hitchcock did not opt for a happy ending. Some critics, including Donald Spoto and Roger Ebert , agree that Vertigo is the director's most personal and revealing film, dealing with the Pygmalion -like obsessions of a man who moulds a woman into the person he desires. Vertigo explores more frankly and at greater length his interest in the relation between sex and death, than any other work in his filmography.
Vertigo contains a camera technique developed by Irmin Roberts, commonly referred to as a dolly zoom , which has been copied by many filmmakers. After Vertigo , the rest of was a difficult year for Hitchcock. During pre-production of North by Northwest , which was a "slow" and "agonising" process, his wife Alma was diagnosed with cancer. Alma underwent surgery and made a full recovery, but it caused Hitchcock to imagine, for the first time, life without her. Hitchcock followed up with three more successful films, which are also recognised as among his best: North by Northwest , Psycho and The Birds At first, Thornhill believes Kendall is helping him, but then realises that she is an enemy agent; he later learns that she is working undercover for the CIA.
Psycho is arguably Hitchcock's best-known film. He subsequently swapped his rights to Psycho and his TV anthology for , shares of MCA , making him the third largest shareholder and his own boss at Universal, in theory at least, although that did not stop studio interference. It took four years to transcribe the tapes and organise the images; it was published as a book in , which Truffaut nicknamed the "Hitchbook".
The audio tapes were used as the basis of a documentary in It was obvious from his films, Truffaut wrote, that Hitchcock had "given more thought to the potential of his art than any of his colleagues". He compared the interview to "Oedipus' consultation of the oracle". The film scholar Peter William Evans wrote that The Birds and Marnie are regarded as "undisputed masterpieces". He hired Tippi Hedren to play the lead role.
Movies don't have them any more. Grace Kelly was the last. Hedren visits him in Bodega Bay where The Birds was filmed  carrying a pair of lovebirds as a gift. Suddenly waves of birds start gathering, watching, and attacking. The question: "What do the birds want? He said it was his most technically challenging film, using a combination of trained and mechanical birds against a backdrop of wild ones. Every shot was sketched in advance. He reportedly isolated her from the rest of the crew, had her followed, whispered obscenities to her, had her handwriting analysed, and had a ramp built from his private office directly into her trailer. Toward the end of the week, to stop the birds' flying away from her too soon, one leg of each bird was attached by nylon thread to elastic bands sewn inside her clothes.
She broke down after a bird cut her lower eyelid, and filming was halted on doctor's orders. In June , Grace Kelly announced that she had decided against appearing in Marnie In , describing Hedren's performance as "one of the greatest in the history of cinema", Richard Brody called the film a "story of sexual violence" inflicted on the character played by Hedren: "The film is, to put it simply, sick, and it's so because Hitchcock was sick.
He suffered all his life from furious sexual desire, suffered from the lack of its gratification, suffered from the inability to transform fantasy into reality, and then went ahead and did so virtually, by way of his art. She applies for a job at Mark Rutland's Connery company in Philadelphia and steals from there too. Earlier she is shown having a panic attack during a thunderstorm and fearing the colour red.
Mark tracks her down and blackmails her into marrying him. She explains that she does not want to be touched, but during the "honeymoon", Mark rapes her. Marnie and Mark discover that Marnie's mother had been a prostitute when Marnie was a child, and that, while the mother was fighting with a client during a thunderstorm—the mother believed the client had tried to molest Marnie—Marnie had killed the client to save her mother.
Cured of her fears when she remembers what happened, she decides to stay with Mark. Hitchcock told cinematographer Robert Burks that the camera had to be placed as close as possible to Hedren when he filmed her face. Hitchcock reportedly replied: "Evan, when he sticks it in her, I want that camera right on her face! Failing health reduced Hitchcock's output during the last two decades of his life. Biographer Stephen Rebello claimed Universal imposed two films on him, Torn Curtain and Topaz , the latter of which is based on a Leon Uris novel, partly set in Cuba.
Torn Curtain , with Paul Newman and Julie Andrews , precipitated the bitter end of the year collaboration between Hitchcock and composer Bernard Herrmann. Hitchcock returned to Britain to make his penultimate film, Frenzy , based on the novel Goodbye Piccadilly, Farewell Leicester Square After two espionage films, the plot marked a return to the murder-thriller genre. Richard Blaney Jon Finch , a volatile barman with a history of explosive anger, becomes the prime suspect in the investigation into the "Necktie Murders", which are actually committed by his friend Bob Rusk Barry Foster. This time, Hitchcock makes the victim and villain kindreds, rather than opposites as in Strangers on a Train. In Frenzy , Hitchcock allowed nudity for the first time.
Two scenes show naked women, one of whom is being raped and strangled;  Donald Spoto called the latter "one of the most repellent examples of a detailed murder in the history of film". Both actors, Barbara Leigh-Hunt and Anna Massey , refused to do the scenes, so models were used instead. Hitchcock would add subtle hints of improprieties forbidden by censorship until the mids. Yet Patrick McGilligan wrote that Breen and others often realised that Hitchcock was inserting such material and were actually amused, as well as alarmed by Hitchcock's "inescapable inferences".
Family Plot was Hitchcock's last film. It relates the escapades of "Madam" Blanche Tyler, played by Barbara Harris , a fraudulent spiritualist, and her taxi-driver lover Bruce Dern , making a living from her phony powers. Screenwriter Ernest Lehman originally wrote the film, under the working title Deception, with a dark tone but was pushed to a lighter, more comical tone by Hitchcock where it took the name Deceit, then finally, Family Plot. Despite preliminary work, it was never filmed. Hitchcock's health was declining and he was worried about his wife, who had suffered a stroke. Asked by a reporter after the ceremony why it had taken the Queen so long, Hitchcock quipped, "I suppose it was a matter of carelessness.
His last public appearance was on 16 March , when he introduced the next year's winner of the American Film Institute award. His remains were scattered over the Pacific Ocean on 10 May Hitchcock's film production career evolved from small-scale silent films to financially significant sound films. Whilst visual storytelling was pertinent during the silent era, even after the arrival of sound, Hitchcock still relied on visuals in cinema.
In Britain, he honed his craft so that by the time he moved to Hollywood, the director had perfected his style and camera techniques. Hitchcock later said that his British work was the "sensation of cinema", whereas the American phase was when his "ideas were fertilised". Afterward, he discovered Soviet cinema , and Sergei Eisenstein 's and Vsevolod Pudovkin 's theories of montage. Earning the title "Master of Suspense", the director experimented with ways to generate tension in his work. And I play with an audience. I make them gasp and surprise them and shock them. When you have a nightmare, it's awfully vivid if you're dreaming that you're being led to the electric chair.
Then you're as happy as can be when you wake up because you're relieved. One of the dramatic reasons for this type of photography is to get it looking so natural that the audience gets involved and believes, for the time being, what's going on up there on the screen. Hitchcock's films, from the silent to the sound era, contained a number of recurring themes that he is famous for.
His films explored audience as a voyeur , notably in Rear Window , Marnie and Psycho. He understood that human beings enjoy voyeuristic activities and made the audience participate in it through the character's actions. In most cases, it is an ordinary, everyday person who finds themselves in a dangerous situation. It's easier for them to identify with him than with a guilty man on the run. According to Robin Wood, Hitchcock had mixed feelings towards homosexuality despite working with gay actors in his career. Moreover, Shadow of a Doubt has a double incest theme through the storyline, expressed implicitly through images.
Hitchcock appears briefly in most of his own films. For example, he is seen struggling to get a double bass onto a train Strangers on a Train , walking dogs out of a pet shop The Birds , fixing a neighbour's clock Rear Window , as a shadow Family Plot , sitting at a table in a photograph Dial M for Murder , and riding a bus North by Northwest , To Catch a Thief. Hitchcock's portrayal of women has been the subject of much scholarly debate.
Bidisha wrote in The Guardian in "There's the vamp, the tramp, the snitch, the witch, the slink, the double-crosser and, best of all, the demon mommy. Don't worry, they all get punished in the end. They were icy and remote. They were imprisoned in costumes that subtly combined fashion with fetishism. They mesmerised the men, who often had physical or psychological handicaps. Sooner or later, every Hitchcock woman was humiliated. The victims in The Lodger are all blondes. In The 39 Steps , Madeleine Carroll is put in handcuffs. Tippi Hedren , a blonde, appears to be the focus of the attacks in The Birds.
In Marnie , the title character, again played by Hedren, is a thief. Hitchcock's last blonde heroine was Barbara Harris as a phony psychic turned amateur sleuth in Family Plot , his final film. In the same film, the diamond smuggler played by Karen Black wears a long blonde wig in several scenes. His films often feature characters struggling in their relationships with their mothers, such as Norman Bates in Psycho. In North by Northwest , Roger Thornhill Cary Grant is an innocent man ridiculed by his mother for insisting that shadowy, murderous men are after him.
In The Birds , the Rod Taylor character, an innocent man, finds his world under attack by vicious birds, and struggles to free himself from a clinging mother Jessica Tandy. The killer in Frenzy has a loathing of women but idolises his mother. The villain Bruno in Strangers on a Train hates his father, but has an incredibly close relationship with his mother played by Marion Lorne. Sebastian Claude Rains in Notorious has a clearly conflicting relationship with his mother, who is rightly suspicious of his new bride, Alicia Huberman Ingrid Bergman. I told her that my idea of a good actor or good actress is someone who can do nothing very well. Because she is a phony! The ice maiden revealed as hot blooded romantic.
Maybe, indicates the genius of Alfred Hitchcock. His work has endured. The mystery in this is easier to figure out than those in a modern police procedural. It's obvious who the real thieves are. It has a bizarre romance in which Grace Kelly for some reason feels the need to throw herself at a year-old Cary Grant. Kelly's character changes on a dime from being entranced by the idea that John Grant is a thief to repulsed by it.
John seems to be a terrible thief and a terrible detective. His sole strategy for catching the thief seems to be sitting on a roof and waiting for the thief to climb through a window, which eventually happens after nearly 2 hrs goes by. Even the thief's motives makes no sense. The thief copies former thief John's robbing technique -- which amounts to climbing through windows -- yet the thief also cares deeply for John, meaning that John is the main suspect for the crime even though the thief would never want John to get into trouble. Really, just a boring cliched mess. While he is most often associated with "Psycho", a dark brooding psychological horror tale, Hitchcock also knew how to have fun. Hitch often employed the likes of Cary Grant when he needed a more light-hearted character residing in Europe, and he used the incomparable Grace Kelly when he needed a witty love-interest to keep up with his male lead.
This is a completely enjoyable and entertaining film with Grant and Kelly doing what they do best with Hitch at the helm. In the French Riviera, near Monte Carlo and the Mediterranean Sea, some burglaries have disrupted this otherwise sleepy locale. Nearby is a former jewel-heister residing in the same vicinity, John Robie, nicknamed the "Cat", played with subtle confidence by Cary Grant. The authorities are convinced the Cat has returned and is wreaking havoc on the community, but Robie insists he's not the one causing millionaire wives to sob at the loss of their priceless jewels.
Robie realizes he will have to catch the burglar himself otherwise he'll probably be put on trial for the thefts. Two Americans, Jesse Stevens and her daughter Frances Grace Kelly , not only reside in the French Riviera but they also boast owning expensive jewelry. The Cat decides to solicit their help by pretending he's an American businessman who has taken a cursory interest in the thefts. However, Frances has heard of "the Cat" and the burglars, and she begins to suspect not only that he is the Cat but also he's responsible for the current thefts.
Grant must play a game of "cat and mouse" in which he uses the Stevens as bait to catch the real thief and all the while staying out of police custody. We as the audience begin wondering who is the real thief and will he be easily apprehended, or have we been playing the fool in believing Grant? A wonderful film, purely for entertainment value and not to be taken too seriously.
The film was shot on location near Monte Carlo, especially on the narrow streets of the French Riviera. Legend has it that the Crown Prince of Monaco saw the cast shooting the film, spotted Kelly, and introduced himself. Shortly thereafter, they engaged in a media-driven romance ending with their marriage. In a tragic twist, Kelly, while driving on those same roads shot in "To Catch a Thief", lost control of her car which plummeted down the steep slopes, causing her death in Kelly was a real princess, both on and off screen, and hers was one of the most-publicized tragedies of a member of European royalty since before the death of Princess Diana only 16 years later.
Interestingly, both princesses died in auto accidents. Cousse Reviewed in the United States on June 6, I read the reviews before buying this version and I'm glad I did. There is a later version of this film on blu ray being offered and when I went to the reviews, someone rated it as awful. The person had a picture of this version and said it was much better. I bought this version and I could never agree more. The colors are wonderful. The images are crisp and clean. It was a stunning rendition of this great film as it deserves to be shown. I strongly suggest if you love this film it deserves to be seen in glorious color and this Blu ray is the one to buy. A relaxed thriller for creating a good time. Alfred Hitchcock's crime thriller To Catch a Thief is more romancing and vacationing rather than a traditional crime drama.
The jewelry plot becomes a subplot as you wonder whether or not Cary Grant and Grace Kelly will end up together instead. You are intrigued by the prospect of Grant catching a robber to clear his name. Though To Catch a Thief is most interesting as you try to figure out the identity of the cat burglar. Hitchcock's direction is nice with many beautifully shot chase sequences, suspenseful quiet moments of capture, silent chases across darkly lit rooftops, and a romance scene in an atmospherically lit hotel room. Hitchcock's still shots instead between Cary Grant and Grace Kelly are the highlight of the film. He also directs with a new angle of many helicopter shots during the driving sequences down long winding roads.
I love the scenic vistas of Nice, France and Monte Carlo, Monaco, however the green screen footage in the background of the driving clips look terrible. The dated editing of quickly cutting away from the fights, encounters, and chases feels lazy for Hitchcock, who could have filmed these scenes instead of cutting to the next scene. Grant literally gets arrested, then it immediately cuts back to him eating lunch at home, leaving the viewer to connect the dots. The pivotal encounter between Grant and The Cat is in darkness with rapid fire cuts that obscure the action so that you cannot see anything but the result. It's deeply unsatisfying. He looks like he was just swimming, eating, sleeping, and relaxing his way through this film. His sarcastic remarks and playful taunts make the movie.Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Vocational Education Vs Liberal Education Essay Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps what brands expect when they choose us to develop innovative business websites. Dimitri Tiomkin. Hitchcock reportedly replied: "Evan, Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps he sticks it in her, I want Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps camera right on her face! Lehman left the film too, and Hitchcock asked old friend Alfred Hitchcocks Use Of Suspense In The 39 Steps Lloyd to help him write a long treatment. Rohmer, Eric; Chabrol, Claude Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.