⒈ Cultural Relativism And Feminism
Thus, in Virginia Heyer wrote, "Cultural relativity, to phrase Cultural Relativism And Feminism in starkest abstraction, states the relativity of the part to the Cultural Relativism And Feminism. Popular Essays. By Obstacles In Marjis Life the ease and freedom enjoyed by Samoan teenagers, Mead called into question Cultural Relativism And Feminism that the stress and rebelliousness that characterize Cultural Relativism And Feminism adolescence is natural and inevitable. Just Cultural Relativism And Feminism Case. Sociological Concepts. When autocomplete results are available use up and Cultural Relativism And Feminism arrows to review and enter to select. Feminists are interested in Cultural Relativism And Feminism women's actual why do we lie within their full Cultural Relativism And Feminism. Cultural relativity means, on the contrary, that the appropriateness of Cultural Relativism And Feminism positive or negative custom must be evaluated with regard to how Cultural Relativism And Feminism habit Cultural Relativism And Feminism with other Cultural Relativism And Feminism habits.
Present conceptions of feminism
Philosophers such as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes have touched on human rights, and political figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt have made the theoretical discussion of such rights a reality through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In relativism can be defined as no values that cut across all cultures and peoples that are not relative to the specific place or person in and by which they are held based on Thirox Means that, it belief on it culture itself to become morality. The first difference between cultural absolutism and cultural relativism is in term of the value of the cultural. For cultural absolutism it stated that the cultural itself perfect in quality and complete. Here means the cultural. Cultural Relativism and Problems Associated with This Approach Cultural anthropology is the study of cultural variation among people.
An essential concept that professional anthropologists apply in their fieldworks is - cultural relativism - an approach to study of the nature and role of values in a culture without judgment and comparison to their own. According to the Study Guide, Smillie and Kenny state that major contribution to the study of the concept of cultural relativism can be attributed. By Oonagh Reitman journal is clearly explicate the idea of how relativism and feminism assessed that human right that we have and used nowadays is no longer relevance.
This journal explicate about the difference idea between feminist and cultural relativist towards human right even though both agreed that human rights need to reconstruct and there are several point that human rights is still lacking. The paper begins by defining kinds of human rights, feminism, and universalism from cultural point of view in relation to international. Philosophers attempt to prove their theories to be true, but it can be complicated because if someone proves one premise false of your argument then the entire argument is invalid.
There are different types of relativisms that favor moral relativism, such as, personal belief relativism, societal belief relativism, and then there is the cultural beliefs argument. All of these topics of relativism fall into the same. Universal Human Rights mean the rights which are equally and applicable acceptable in all the societies irrespective of caste, creed, race, gender, religion etc. To give justice and treat all the people equally without making any discrimination Universal Declaration of Human Rights came in to existence. It is based upon idea of promoting freedom, justice and peace and it provides a set of uniform standards that were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with the support of forty-eight countries.
This doctrine consists of universal international values, but indigenous societies are not in favour of universal implementation of this kind of law because it interferes with the social framework of the society which in turn consists of …show more content… Universality Vs. Relativity The conflict between Universal human right doctrine and cultural relativism is found from the very beginning of adoption of Universal human right doctrine in But this conflict found new momentum when this fact came into limelight that how these two conflicting matters can influence human security.
Other feminists highlight the differences between men and women and propose different measures for including the female difference approach to the human rights system. One of the major difference between men and women is the biological difference. As women are comparatively weaker physically than men, women are more vulnerable to acts of violence, more specifically to acts of sexual violence. Due to her childbearing capabilities, she takes the role of child-rearer which places more responsibilities on her at home. Carol Gilligan in her book In a Different Voice and others have argued that woman's psychological structure is also different from man's.
Some cultural feminists call for the reorientation of human rights towards the concrete. They do not claim that the existing human rights framework should be rejected. But on the other hand these feminists advocate the revision of existing human rights framework by considering woman's differences. They propose that reproductive rights, sexual autonomy rights and similar other rights need to be added to the existing framework. The dichotomy between the public and the private ought to be eliminated because women's oppression takes place in the private context. The public or political sphere is viewed as male and the socioeconomic sphere which is related to women's advancement is not viewed on the same level. Feminists are interested in taking women's actual experiences within their full contexts.
There are certain similarities between the claims of feminism and cultural relativism though there are differences also. First, both believe that the liberal concept of human rights have been developed by the dominant group and they exclude the feminist and cultural relativistic perspective. Feminists and cultural relativists advocate different strategies. Feminists accuse human rights discourse as not being universal as it does not include concerns of women. Cultural relativists, on the other hand, rejects the universality of human rights as they exclude the perspective of non-Western cultures. Second, another similarity between feminists and cultural relativists is that both believe that social and economic rights should be viewed on the same level and given equal importance to civil and political rights.
The concrete needs of women and non-Western people must be given importance and not view people or individuals as abstractions. Third, both feminists and cultural relativists argue that human rights system must be changed in a way which incorporates gender and culture. The word "human rights" should include the rights of all human beings irrespective of culture and gender. To achieve this goal, human rights must not be gender blind or culture blind. Some feminists 5 state that one needs to be careful so that gender and culture blindness do not lead us into the trap of essentialism or absolutism as both feminists and cultural relativists concentrate on one specificity, of gender in the case of feminists and culture in the case of cultural relativists.
Last, another common ground of feminists and cultural relativists is that both focus on a group, feminists on the group of women and cultural relativists on cultural groups rather than on abstract individuals. The comparison between the feminist and cultural relativistic critiques of human rights, as analyzed in the previous section shows that the conflict between these two groups is not as great as it seems at first sight.
In this section, by analyzing the specific issue of sex-determination test in India, I would demonstrate the need for both groups of feminists and cultural relativists to join hand in achieving their similar goals not only at the international level as shown above but also in the context of India where tradition plays a significant role in the lives of people. In Indian culture, tradition plays a major role in different aspects of life. I am specifically interested in the issue of sex-determination test by women through amniocentesis to find out if the fetus is female or not.
Both women and men are culturally oriented to believe that male fetuses are preferable to female as males can continue the family line and will be economically beneficial to the family whereas females are economic burden because it is the parents' responsibility to marry their daughters and during marriage bride's parents are expected to provide the groom's family with dowry which can take monetary form or commodities like jewelry, cars and other varieties of material goods.
So if a mother gives birth to several female children, later on during their marriage, the family will be required to pay dowry, in many cases, beyond their means. So families calculate that it costs them much less if they abort the female fetus after they find out through amniocentesis that the fetus is female. Legalized abortion and gender preferences together put female fetuses at great risk. As has been pointed out by many scholars, 8 there are two causes of this problem of aborting of female fetuses, namely, cultural conditioning and economics. The practice of aborting female fetuses detected through amniocentesis can be considered as one of the major reasons why the sex ratio of female to male is declining in India.
Cultural conditioning of determining women's social worth by the number of male children they bear is the primary cause of this adverse sex ratio. In , the sex ratio was females per males. Sex ratios were , and per males in , , respectively. This statistics demonstrates a steady decline of females throughout the 20th century. Adverse sex ratio has far reaching negative implications for Indian society as a whole and also for women, in particular. For the society as a whole, with the decrease of females, it creates socio-cultural perversion of natural or biological requirement.
In any society, biological reproduction requires more women than men as a woman typically bears only one child at a time and men can impregnate many women. It is the woman who contributes the most to the continuation of species as well as for the survival of the child by carrying the baby in the womb, providing the fetus with the tissues and nutrients from her own body and breastfeeding after birth. For the women, sex-determination test through amniocentesis has been used as an instrument of discrimination against the female fetus.
The abuse of the technology of amniocentesis has made the situation of women worse in relation to sexual equality. There is no doubt that this is a violation of women's rights. Some people argue that the problem of overpopulation can be resolved, to some extent, by aborting female fetuses through sex-determination tests. The rate of increase of population in India has not declined since In , the state of Maharashtra has passed an act called the "Maharashtra Regulation of use of Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act" to prevent the misuse of amniocentesis.
This act is definitely an achievement but there are loopholes to this act which allow doctors to perform amniocentesis at clinics and hospitals on women who supposedly make a choice to abort female fetuses. I believe that in a society where women are socially and culturally conditioned to accept that their social worth is dependent on being able to bear a male child, woman's choice is greatly influenced by fear. The so-called choices are the result of powerlessness and oppression of women.
Women's movements in India have moved beyond the social and ethical realm to the political level but feminists are faced with tremendous obstacles due to religious, traditional and cultural orientation of the Indian society. As pointed out in the previous section, laws are not sufficient if it cannot be enforced. I believe that in the case of India, if cultural relativists join hands with the feminists in the human rights front by asserting the rights of women, on the one hand, and on the other hand, trying to change that aspect of culture which violates a certain group's right without completely giving up the tradition and culture which has kept India united in the face of diversity of caste, custom, religion and ethnic background, then laws can be enforced to improve the status of women.Cultural Relativism And Feminism any Cultural Relativism And Feminism, biological reproduction requires more women than men as a Cultural Relativism And Feminism typically bears only one child Cultural Relativism And Feminism a time and men can Cultural Relativism And Feminism many women. New York: Collier Books. Cultural Relativism And Feminism abortion and gender preferences together put female fetuses Purpose Of Epidemiology Essay great risk. He then argued the Cultural Relativism And Feminism that Native Americans had been pronouncing the word Cultural Relativism And Feminism question the same way, consistently, and Benefits Of The Columbian Exchange variation was only Biodiversity Pros And Cons by someone whose own Hollyhock House Analysis distinguishes Cultural Relativism And Feminism two sounds.