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The Main Causes Of The American Civil War



United StatesAtlantic Ocean. Its jurisdiction extended only as The Main Causes Of The American Civil War as Confederate battle lines in the Commonwealth and went into exile for good after October By group. The Main Causes Of The American Civil War Cawthorn calls Jan. Key attempts to solve the issue included the Missouri Nursing Personal Statement and the Compromise ofbut these only postponed an inevitable showdown over The Main Causes Of The American Civil War. As the need for troops in The Main Causes Of The American Civil War American West became more critical, the experiment of enlisting Confederate prisoners became a topic The Main Causes Of The American Civil War discussion in the U. There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections.

What caused the American Civil War?

In the midst of the Civil War, the United States was also dealing with another issue: the many emigrants heading westward. With their troops in the last stages of fighting the conflict with the South, it was a difficult task to protect the many pioneers on the trails and combat Indian uprisings. As early as , Colonel James Mulligan discovered that many Confederate prisoners did not wish to be exchanged, were willing to join the Union army, and be enlisted for the Union causes in the west. This became even more apparent in when the prisoner exchange system broke down, and the imprisoned men had no hope of release until the end of the war.

As the need for troops in the American West became more critical, the experiment of enlisting Confederate prisoners became a topic of discussion in the U. War Department. In , President Lincoln endorsed the enlisting of ex-Confederates, who could win their freedom by swearing their allegiance to the Union and enlisting in the Union Army. However, due to doubts of their ultimate loyalty, they were almost always assigned to posts far from the Civil War battlefields, in posts in the American West.

Numbering about 6, men, there were six regiments of U. Russell, In total, at least two and a half million men served the Union Army, most of which were volunteers. The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically. The soldiers themselves were organized by military specialties, such as infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Merton Coulter put it, "people did not will hard enough and long enough to win.

Even as the Confederacy was visibly collapsing in —65, he says most Confederate soldiers were fighting hard. Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause. The Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers. Southern leaders needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and cities.

The abundance of European cotton and Britain's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either Britain or France would enter the war. Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history. A Confederate victory, on the other hand, would have meant a new birth of slavery, not freedom.

Historian Fergus Bordewich, following Doyle, argues that:. The North's victory decisively proved the durability of democratic government. Confederate independence, on the other hand, would have established an American model for reactionary politics and race-based repression that would likely have cast an international shadow into the twentieth century and perhaps beyond. Scholars have debated what the effects of the war were on political and economic power in the South.

The war resulted in at least 1,, casualties 3 percent of the population , including about , soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease—and 50, civilians. David Hacker believes the number of soldier deaths was approximately ,, 20 percent higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as high as , Based on census figures, 8 percent of all white men aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6 percent in the North and 18 percent in the South. Union army dead, amounting to 15 percent of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: [6]. In addition there were 4, deaths in the Navy 2, in battle and in the Marines in battle.

Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle. In the last year and a half and from all reported casualties, approximately 20 percent of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War. Notably, their mortality rate was significantly higher than white soldiers. While Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74, killed and died of wounds and 59, died of disease. Including Confederate estimates of battle losses where no records exist would bring the Confederate death toll to 94, killed and died of wounds. However, this excludes the 30, deaths of Confederate troops in prisons, which would raise the minimum number of deaths to , The United States National Park Service uses the following figures in its official tally of war losses: [2].

While the figures of , army deaths for the Union and , for the Confederacy remained commonly cited, they are incomplete. In addition to many Confederate records being missing, partly as a result of Confederate widows not reporting deaths due to being ineligible for benefits, both armies only counted troops who died during their service and not the tens of thousands who died of wounds or diseases after being discharged. This often happened only a few days or weeks later. Francis Amasa Walker , superintendent of the census, used census and surgeon general data to estimate a minimum of , Union military deaths and , Confederate military deaths, for a total death toll of , soldiers. While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6.

Analyzing the number of dead by using census data to calculate the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm suggests that at least , and at most ,, but most likely , soldiers, died in the war. Deaths among former slaves has proven much harder to estimate, due to the lack of reliable census data at the time, though they were known to be considerable, as former slaves were set free or escaped in massive numbers in an area where the Union army did not have sufficient shelter, doctors, or food for them.

University of Connecticut Professor James Downs states that tens to hundreds of thousands of slaves died during the war from disease, starvation, or exposure and that if these deaths are counted in the war's total, the death toll would exceed 1 million. Losses were far higher than during the recent defeat of Mexico , which saw roughly thirteen thousand American deaths, including fewer than two thousand killed in battle, between and One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the continued use of tactics similar to those of the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the century, such as charging.

This led to the adoption of trench warfare , a style of fighting that defined much of World War I. Abolishing slavery was not a Union war goal from the outset, but it quickly became one. To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily to preserve the Union , not to abolish slavery. Lincoln and his cabinet made ending slavery a war goal, which culminated in the Emancipation Proclamation. The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment.

Slavery for the Confederacy's 3. The last Confederate slaves were freed on June 19th, , celebrated as the modern holiday of Juneteenth. Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied before the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or on December 6, by the Thirteenth Amendment. About , volunteered, further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining the legitimacy of slavery.

During the Civil War, sentiment concerning slaves, enslavement and emancipation in the United States was divided. Lincoln's fears of making slavery a war issue were based on a harsh reality: abolition did not enjoy wide support in the west, the territories, and the border states. Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected. When Lincoln told his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".

In September , the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation. In his letter to Albert G. Hodges , Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me. Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in inducing border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves to fight for the Union.

All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware. It caused much unrest in the Western states, where racist sentiments led to a great fear of abolition. There was some concern that the proclamation would lead to the secession of Western states, and prompted the stationing of Union troops in Illinois in case of rebellion. Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. The war had utterly devastated the South, and posed serious questions of how the South would be re-integrated to the Union. The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South.

All accumulated investment Confederate bonds were forfeit; most banks and railroads were bankrupt. The income per person in the South dropped to less than 40 percent of that of the North, a condition that lasted until well into the 20th century. Southern influence in the U. From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to consolidate the Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a " republican form of government " for the ex-Confederate states, and to permanently end slavery—and prevent semi-slavery status.

President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free. They came to the fore after the elections and undid much of Johnson's work. In the "Liberal Republicans" argued that the war goals had been achieved and that Reconstruction should end. They ran a presidential ticket in but were decisively defeated. In , Democrats, primarily Southern, took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction.

The Compromise of closed with a national consensus that the Civil War had finally ended. The Civil War would have a huge impact on American politics in the years to come. Many veterans on both sides were subsequently elected to political office, including five U. The Civil War is one of the central events in American collective memory. There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections. The memory includes the home front, military affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political lessons of the war.

Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. Military history has largely developed outside academia, leading to a proliferation of studies by non-scholars who nevertheless are familiar with the primary sources and pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and who write for the general public, rather than the scholarly community. Bruce Catton and Shelby Foote are among the best-known writers. The memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause" : that the Confederate cause was a just and heroic one. The myth shaped regional identity and race relations for generations. Nolan notes that the Lost Cause was expressly "a rationalization, a cover-up to vindicate the name and fame" of those in rebellion.

Some claims revolve around the insignificance of slavery; some appeals highlight cultural differences between North and South; the military conflict by Confederate actors is idealized; in any case, secession was said to be lawful. He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance. Beard and Mary R. The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. Though this interpretation was abandoned by the Beards in the s, and by historians generally by the s, Beardian themes still echo among Lost Cause writers. The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga.

Soldiers began erecting markers on battlefields beginning with the First Battle of Bull Run in July , but the oldest surviving monument is the Hazen Brigade Monument near Murfreesboro, Tennessee , built in the summer of by soldiers in Union Col. William B. Hazen's brigade to mark the spot where they buried their dead following the Battle of Stones River. In , these five parks and other national monuments were transferred to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. The American Civil War has been commemorated in many capacities ranging from the reenactment of battles to statues and memorial halls erected, to films being produced, to stamps and coins with Civil War themes being issued, all of which helped to shape public memory.

This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the th and th anniversary. Numerous technological innovations during the Civil War had a great impact on 19th-century science. The Civil War was one of the earliest examples of an " industrial war ", in which technological might is used to achieve military supremacy in a war. The war also saw the first appearances of rapid-firing weapons and machine guns such as the Agar gun and the Gatling gun. The Civil War is one of the most studied events in American history, and the collection of cultural works around it is enormous. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Civil War disambiguation. United States , Atlantic Ocean. Dissolution of the Confederate States U.

Theaters of the American Civil War. Timeline and periods. By group. See also. Historiography List of years in the United States. Status of the states, Slave states that seceded before April 15, Slave states that seceded after April 15, Union states that permitted slavery border states. Union states that banned slavery. Main article: Slavery in the United States. Main article: Abolitionism in the United States. Further information: Slave states and free states.

Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas—Nebraska Act of John J. Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise. Main article: United States presidential election. Main article: Battle of Fort Sumter. Main article: Border states American Civil War. Union states. Union territories not permitting slavery. Border Union states, permitting slavery. Confederate states. Union territories that permitted slavery claimed by Confederacy at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U. See also: Child soldiers in the American Civil War. Main article: American Civil War prison camps. Main article: Union blockade. Main article: Blockade runners of the American Civil War. Main article: Diplomacy of the American Civil War. Main article: Conclusion of the American Civil War.

This New York Times front page celebrated Lee's surrender, headlining how Grant let Confederate officers retain their sidearms and "paroled" the Confederate officers and men. National cemetery in Andersonville, GA. Main article: Emancipation Proclamation. Left: Contrabands —fugitive slaves—cooks, laundresses, laborers, teamsters, railroad repair crews—fled to the Union Army, but were not officially freed until by the Emancipation Proclamation. Right: In , the Union army accepted Freedmen. Seen here are Black and White teen-aged soldiers. Main article: Reconstruction era. Right: Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, Main article: Lost Cause of the Confederacy.

Top: Grand Army of the Republic Union. Bottom: United Confederate Veterans. See also: Music of the American Civil War. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties. Contrabands and after the Emancipation Proclamation freedmen, migrating into Union control on the coasts and to the advancing armies, and natural increase are excluded. It omits losses from contraband and after the Emancipation Proclamation, freedmen migrating to the Union controlled coastal ports and those joining advancing Union armies, especially in the Mississippi Valley.

They used them as laborers to support the war effort. As Howell Cobb said, "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong. Lee argued in favor of arming blacks late in the war, and Jefferson Davis was eventually persuaded to support plans for arming slaves to avoid military defeat. The Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox before this plan could be implemented. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia.

The New York Times. Associated Press. May 10, Retrieved December 23, National Park Service. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, OCLC War Dept Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved October 14, University of Connecticut, April 13, The surviving records only include the number of Black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths.

David September 20, Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 22, Oxford University Press, April 13, As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties Science Daily. September 22, American Battlefield Trust. August 16, Retrieved October 7, October 1, Oxford University Press.

ISBN Martis, Kenneth C. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. The Atlantic. Retrieved December 21, Remembering the Civil War Speech. Sesquicentennial of the Start of the Civil War. Retrieved August 29, Issues related to the institution of slavery precipitated secession It was not states' rights. It was not a tariff. It was not unhappiness with manner and customs that led to secession and eventually to war.

It was a cluster of issues profoundly dividing the nation along a fault line delineated by the institution of slavery. Dougherty, and Jac C. March 1, What They Fought For — Louisiana State University Press. April 3, For Cause and Comrades. The loyal citizenry initially gave very little thought to emancipation in their quest to save the union.

Most loyal citizens, though profoundly prejudice by 21st century standards, embraced emancipation as a tool to punish slaveholders, weaken the confederacy, and protect the union from future internal strife. A minority of the white populous invoked moral grounds to attack slavery, though their arguments carried far less popular weight than those presenting emancipation as a military measure necessary to defeat the rebels and restore the Union. Canton Daily Ledger. Canton, Illinois. Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved January 29, American Political Science Review. ISSN Causes of the civil war, — p.

New England Historical Society. Retrieved October 6, The Selling of Joseph, pp. John Adams, p. James Madison: A Biography , pp. National Archives and Records Administration. August 15, Archived from the original on May 21, Retrieved May 21, A Necessary Evil? This sentiment, added to economic considerations, led to the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery in six northern states, while there was a swelling flood of private manumissions in the South. Little actual gain was made by the free Negro even in this period, and by the turn of the century, the downward trend had begun again. Thereafter the only important change in that trend before the Civil War was that after the decline in the status of the free Negro became more precipitate.

Puritan Spirits in the Abolitionist Imagination, pp. Theodore Parker, pp. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 7, Book preview. Brookfield, Conn. Tomlinson: Plainfolk Modernist. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. December Retrieved July 29, The American Historical Review. Harvard University Press. JSTOR Retrieved July 10, Retrieved June 12, Akron Law Review. ISSN X. Concerning History. July 3, Sydnor, The Development of Southern Sectionalism — Wakelyn Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November — April Porter, and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 28, World Digital Library.

Retrieved July 16, What Caused the Civil War? Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved May 28, Maryland State Archives. Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved February 6, Frank Key Fourteen Months in American Bastiles. London: H. Retrieved August 18, Retrieved April 20, Over 10, military engagements took place during the war, 40 percent of them in Virginia and Tennessee. See Gabor Boritt, ed. War Comes Again , p. Abraham Lincoln: A History. Century Company. Merton June 1, LSU Press. In his message of April 29 to the rebel Congress, Jefferson Davis proposed to organize for instant action an army of , Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy online edition.

Houghton Mifflin Company. The railroads and banks grew rapidly. See Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. See also Oberholtzer, Ellis Parson A history of the United States since the Civil War. The Macmillan company. Civil War". Social Forces. University of Alabama Press. Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved June 22, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. June 4, Retrieved January 6, Neely, Jr. Naval War College Review. Saul, Richard D. Russian-American Dialogue on Cultural Relations, — p II, p. Noyalas December 3, Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Arcadia Publishing. Army War College 21 3, pp. Missouri alone was the scene of over 1, engagements between regular units, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and raids by informal pro-Confederate bands, especially in the recently settled western counties.

Chronicles of Oklahoma. Frederick; Jr Great Plains Journal. Neely Jr. Grant Personal Memoirs of U. Grant; Selected Letters. Library of America. Petersburg — The Longest Siege. Osprey Publishing. April 10, Savannah Daily Herald. Savannah, Georgia, U. April 16, April : the month that saved America 1 ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Understanding U. Military Conflicts through Primary Sources [4 volumes]. April 17, Archived from the original on February 7, Ghost Towns of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. Census and Carter, Susan B. At the beginning of , the Confederacy controlled one-third of its congressional districts, which were apportioned by population.

The major slave-populations found in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama were effectively under Union control by the end of Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. University of Illinois. Retrieved October 16, Explorations in Economic History. National Geographic News. July 1, January January 1, ABC News. Retrieved June 17, Browning, September 22, King University professor Gail Helt wrote "I've seen this kind of violence This is what autocrats do. This is what happens in countries before a collapse. It really does unnerve me. In , the United States faced considerable social, economic and political conflicts that exacerbated pre-existing division.

These conflicts were driven primarily by the COVID pandemic and subsequent economic fallout, the highly contentious United States presidential election , and civil unrest related to the George Floyd protests in June. Several political analysts have suggested that the fallout from may trigger further unrest and lead to another civil war in the future, and that the United States strongly resemble countries that experienced civil wars in the past.

In the early months of the COVID pandemic, government-imposed lockdowns were met with protests from mostly right-leaning groups, including armed militias, that resulted in several state capitals being stormed. Journalist John T. Bennett from The Independent said that anti-lockdown sentiment constituted a form of "Second Civil War" that would escalate due to the pandemic and the divide between rural and urban areas in the United States. Larger protests and civil unrest was sparked by the murder of George Floyd. During the George Floyd protests , some former CIA analysts expressed fear that President Donald Trump would commence a military crackdown against protesters and possibly risk a violent national collapse. John's Episcopal Church and called for the U.

King University professor Gail Helt wrote, "I've seen this kind of violence In June , an audio tape leaked in which three police officers from Wilmington, North Carolina , were caught using derogatory remarks to describe black Americans, saying that they should be slaughtered and that "there should be another civil war to wipe them off the fucking map. On his first day of the job, Wilmington Police Chief Donny Williams condemned the incident and advocated for police reform. It was later revealed that two of the officers had prior disciplinary issues, including some which occurred in the s.

Actual efforts to spark a civil war have been minimal, though not non-existent; 14 members of a group called Wolverine Watchmen, for instance, were arrested in late for plotting to kidnap the Governor of Michigan in an effort to start a second civil war that would "lead to societal collapse". On numerous occasions throughout the election then-President Trump refused to commit to a peaceful transfer of power if he lost, and began to cast doubt on the legitimacy of the election by claiming widespread voter fraud. Several American citizens began to purchase tactical gear, such as body armor, in preparation for the election and several suppliers of tactical gear saw a significant increase in sales. After candidate Joe Biden was announced as the winner of the election, Trump initially refused to concede and attempted several times to overturn the election results in his favor, including reports of discussing martial law.

Many observers viewed the attack as a watershed moment putting the country on track for further political violence, and a possible civil war. Others, however, viewed the upholding of the election by federal institutions as evidence that any potential civil war was alarmist and the potential for armed conflict had "fizzled out. During his inauguration , President Joe Biden called on the country to end the "uncivil war that pits red against blue, rural versus urban, conservative versus liberal," referring to the high polarization of American politics. He later remarked that the country was facing "the worst challenge to our democracy since the Civil War" in response to new voting restrictions enacted by conservative political leaders.

A handful of right-leaning politicians have actively called for or suggested the possibility of a civil war. The Republican House Representative Steve King , for instance, posted a much-criticized Internet meme on March 19, reading, "Folks keep talking about another civil war. In December , after the Supreme Court refused to hear Texas v. Pennsylvania , a lawsuit regarding unproven claims of fraud in the elections , Texas GOP Chair Allen West criticized the Court and suggested "law-abiding states" should secede. In May , U. Representative Matt Gaetz told a crowd of Trump supporters at an "America First" rally that "we have a Second Amendment in this country and I think we have an obligation to use it Political commentators cite a plenitude of reasons to believe a cold Second Civil War is already underway or a violent civil war could erupt.

Increasing political polarization , in particular, is frequently cited as cause for concern. Thomas E. Ricks , for instance, argued in a article for Foreign Policy that the current political tensions in the United States could escalate to asymmetric or irregular warfare with the help of increasing radicalization and digital propaganda, and speculated that "the likelihood of a second U. Armed Forces. Walter has argued that an increase in domestic terrorism such as the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting and a high rate of gun violence in the United States could be indicators of an impending second civil war.

Former U. National Security Council official Fiona Hill , who testified in the first impeachment of Donald Trump , said the January 6 riots were a clear indicator that the nation is taking "darker turns," and summarized the cold war concern by stating: "The United States is teetering on the edge of violence here. We're already, I think, in a cold civil war. We've got a chance now to turn this around. But if we don't take it, we're heading down that autocratic path that we've seen in other countries.

Other political and social commentators acknowledge that extreme partisan politics on Capitol Hill , accompanied by related commonplace verbal and occasional physical acts of aggression in the streets, are tearing apart the fabric of American society, [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] but point to the fact that "culture wars cycles" are imminent to the process of replenishing American values, and the first such cycle started after George Washington's retirement, [75] and that Americans have to find "America's middle again and return to civility. There is considerable concern among the general public that a Second Civil War could erupt in the near future. A Rasmussen poll, for instance, found that 31 percent of American voters feared that the intense partisanship following the presidential election and the victory of Donald Trump would cause a Second Civil War within five years, [77] while a poll by the Georgetown Institute of Politics and Public Service revealed that "the average voter believes the U.

Voters in the South felt a civil war was more likely when compared to other regions. Many Americans of both political parties saw the immediate aftermath of the election, including the storming of the U. Capitol, as a clear sign that "America is falling apart. Trump to the presidency. Ryan Williams, president of the conservative Claremont Institute , stated in an interview with The Atlantic that he was worried about civil violence and a civil war, claiming the United States is "more divided now than we were then.

Meanwhile, researchers at the Brookings Institution suggested a full-on civil war would likely be limited by several factors: a strong national rule of law, a lack of government-sponsored violence, no clear regional split, and likely conflict resolution through elections or public policy. However, the researchers suggested an uptick in domestic terrorism and mass violence could occur and that a civil war was not entirely impossible, concluding: "we should not assume it could not happen and ignore the ominous signs that conflict is spiraling out of control.

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American The Main Causes Of The American Civil War Trust. Northerners thought a dependence upon slave labor had rendered Southerners too weak both physically and morally to present a serious battlefield threat. Savannah Daily The Main Causes Of The American Civil War. Retrieved 9 Flower Mound Case Study

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