➊ Purpose Of Epidemiology Essay

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Purpose Of Epidemiology Essay

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Epidemiological Studies - made easy!

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Write an essay about do colleges want the sat essay. My lovely mother essay. Kannada essay on topic parisara ivy league entrance essays case study for psychoanalysis capital punishment essay in india china one child policy case study a level essay on pollution control our responsibility, contrast essay outline. Read dissertations online. Snow on cholera. Because Snow believed that water was a source of infection for cholera, he marked the location of water pumps on his spot map, then looked for a relationship between the distribution of households with cases of cholera and the location of pumps.

When he questioned residents who lived in the Golden Square area, he was told that they avoided Pump B because it was grossly contaminated, and that Pump C was located too inconveniently for most of them. From this information, Snow concluded that the Broad Street pump Pump A was the primary source of water and the most likely source of infection for most persons with cholera in the Golden Square area. He noted with curiosity, however, that no cases of cholera had occurred in a two-block area just to the east of the Broad Street pump. Upon investigating, Snow found a brewery located there with a deep well on the premises.

Brewery workers got their water from this well, and also received a daily portion of malt liquor. To confirm that the Broad Street pump was the source of the epidemic, Snow gathered information on where persons with cholera had obtained their water. Consumption of water from the Broad Street pump was the one common factor among the cholera patients. After Snow presented his findings to municipal officials, the handle of the pump was removed and the outbreak ended. The site of the pump is now marked by a plaque mounted on the wall outside of the appropriately named John Snow Pub. London: [updated Oct 14; cited Feb 6].

During a cholera epidemic a few years earlier, Snow had noted that districts with the highest death rates were serviced by two water companies: the Lambeth Company and the Southwark and Vauxhall Company. At that time, both companies obtained water from the Thames River at intake points that were downstream from London and thus susceptible to contamination from London sewage, which was discharged directly into the Thames. To avoid contamination by London sewage, in the Lambeth Company moved its intake water works to a site on the Thames well upstream from London.

Over a 7-week period during the summer of , Snow compared cholera mortality among districts that received water from one or the other or both water companies. The results are shown in Table 1. Table 1. The data in Table 1. Interestingly, the mortality rate in districts supplied by both companies fell between the rates for districts served exclusively by either company. These data were consistent with the hypothesis that water obtained from the Thames below London was a source of cholera.

Alternatively, the populations supplied by the two companies may have differed on other factors that affected their risk of cholera. To test his water supply hypothesis, Snow focused on the districts served by both companies, because the households within a district were generally comparable except for the water supply company. In these districts, Snow identified the water supply company for every house in which a death from cholera had occurred during the 7-week period. It also established the sequence of steps used by current-day epidemiologists to investigate outbreaks of disease. Based on a characterization of the cases and population at risk by time, place, and person, Snow developed a testable hypothesis.

He then tested his hypothesis with a more rigorously designed study, ensuring that the groups to be compared were comparable. After this study, efforts to control the epidemic were directed at changing the location of the water intake of the Southwark and Vauxhall Company to avoid sources of contamination. Thus, with no knowledge of the existence of microorganisms, Snow demonstrated through epidemiologic studies that water could serve as a vehicle for transmitting cholera and that epidemiologic information could be used to direct prompt and appropriate public health action.

In the mid- and lates, epidemiological methods began to be applied in the investigation of disease occurrence. At that time, most investigators focused on acute infectious diseases. In the s and s, epidemiologists extended their methods to noninfectious diseases. The period since World War II has seen an explosion in the development of research methods and the theoretical underpinnings of epidemiology. Epidemiology has been applied to the entire range of health-related outcomes, behaviors, and even knowledge and attitudes. The studies by Doll and Hill linking lung cancer to smoking 6 and the study of cardiovascular disease among residents of Framingham, Massachusetts 7 are two examples of how pioneering researchers have applied epidemiologic methods to chronic disease since World War II.

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