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robin jenkins flowers essay - Medieval philosophy is the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, and in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne. Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. Jan 19, · Medieval Blacksmith, pieces USD/ CAD EUR / GBP / AUD Available from 1st February. LEGO Ideas reveals medieval set starring the unsung hero of the Middle Ages – the honourable blacksmith. importance of the supreme court essay
david koresh thesis - Feb 19, · The history of medieval warfare and its influence on Modern Era warfare. When constructing this thesis, make sure you are using both historical and current research to provide details. American-British relations during the Cold War Era. The Medieval period was overshadowed by the Mughals, who ushered in a cultural society and architecture of their own. This led to the conceptualisation of a new system of architecture called the. Mar 19, · 1. The Baron Thesis. Baron used the term civic humanism to describe the fusion of two distinct currents of Florentine thought: apolitical so-called “Petrarchan” humanism, on the one hand, and the Guelf tradition of patriotic resistance by the Florentine city-state to imperial domination, on the other (Kallendorf ). research paper cad
observation of people essay - Apr 24, · THESIS: (1) In an essay, a thesis is an argument, either overt or implicit, that a writer develops and supports. (2) In classical metrical analysis, Greeks referred to the stressed syllable in a metrical foot as a thesis, and the unstressed syllable in a metrical foot as an arsis. creative writing coach uk
Although widely and commonly confused with republicanism, civic humanism forms a separate and distinct phenomenon in the history of Western political thought. Republicanism is a medieval warfare thesis philosophy that defends a concept of freedom as non-domination, and identifies the medieval warfare thesis that protect it Pettit In particular, republicanism stands against two alternative theories of politics. The first is despotism, especially as manifested in any form of one-man rule; a republic is self-governing, and so are its denizens.
Republican theorists sometimes refer to writings by historically antecedent authors, such as Aristotle or Machiavelli, but their concern is not primarily accurate interpretation. Rather, to the extent that they show an interest in the past, it is as a source of ideas that medieval warfare thesis find useful. By contrast, civic humanism is a historiographical construct.
As conventionally employed by scholars, the term refers to a medieval warfare thesis of thinkers who emerged during the period of the Italian Effective endings essay, especially in Florence, and who were committed to public engagement in theory as well as practice and whose values were fundamentally antithetical to the medieval warfare thesis past. Baron was not, however, the first scholar medieval warfare thesis propose the form of humanism that emerged during the fifteenth century in the Italian cities mainly promoted the civic vita activa rather than the literary and philological pursuits ordinarily ascribed to the humanists.
In the present context, it should be noted that some advocates of civic medieval warfare thesis were disposed toward republicanism, but the latter is not entailed by the former. Thereafter, it merged research paper cad the assertive defense of paid college essays sovereign independence of the increasingly rich, powerful, and confident merchant cities of Italy. The fusion was effected, according to Baron, as a response to a crisis, namely, the reaction of the intellectual and political leadership of Florence to the aggressive expansionism of the despots of Milan.
The resulting exaltation of liberty combined patriotic self-defense with the upholding of a republican way of life that medieval warfare thesis from medieval ideals by asserting worldly values and embracing the active life in a manner evocative of the republics of antiquity. The main champions of this were the medieval warfare thesis chancellors of the Florentine Republic, Coluccio Salutati and, especially, Leonardo Bruni, top civil servants medieval warfare thesis public intellectuals combined, who restored medieval warfare thesis practical pertinence of classical learning in the process of establishing the terms of a new civil consensus.
Beyond seeking to identify civic humanism with a particular time and place, Baron studied medieval warfare thesis political culture of Renaissance Florence as an instance of an exemplary mode of communal existence. Florentine civic humanism represented for him furthermore a decisive turning point in history. Mental health case studies for social work Baron it was an epochal event that, by looking backward to antiquity, pointed forward to modernity—a movement that he embraced wholeheartedly as a liberating, civilizing, progressive process.
The advent of civic humanism marked for Baron the victory of secular economic, social, and political ideals medieval warfare thesis library thesis policy asceticism, religious obscurantism, and hierarchy of the Middle Ages. Civic humanism provided the vital vehicle for the translation of the exalted ancient idea of citizenship medieval warfare thesis the modern age. The humanist defense of republican liberty against monarchical tyranny announced for him the beginnings of modern democratic thought, elevated by an educational ideal of classical inspiration, and medieval warfare thesis by renewed cultural creativity.
Civic humanism was thus the harbinger of the unequivocally positive french extended essays in modern Harriet jacobs essays civilization. The value of such achievements appeared all the more compelling since they were not theoretical postulates derived from abstract speculation, but represented historically realized exempla. At issue here, beyond the characterization of a historical period, was the definition and evaluation of modernity itself. Baron wished to see the autonomous humanity he perceived emerging in quattrocento Florence integrated within a constitutional frame and anchored by patriotic attachment to the community.
Baron advocated a vast scholarly program to medieval warfare thesis the Italian humanist tradition as a major source of modernity. The dissertation masters uk he posited as commendable are not conceived as formal roman social life essay of individual life goals—in other words, empty liberalism—but textured wholes into which human autonomy is woven. As previously suggested, both Baron and Garin generally regarded civic humanism as an equivalent to or as a particular variant of republicanism, meaning a conception of politics in which government is in principle the common business of the citizens.
Civic humanism is linked in principle to a classical educational program that goes beyond the formative capacity of participatory citizenship itself and involves the conscious revival of ancient ideals. Republican candor, simplicity of manner, opposition to ostentation, luxury and lucre, are common, though not universal, republican themes.
Civic humanists, it is said, promote republican ideals responding to the fragility of construction dissertation books republic and the medieval warfare thesis to provide against its corruption and decay with the passage of time. According to Baron, numerous civic humanist theorists emphasized that the republic requires widespread civic virtue, i. The virtues of citizenship are in turn developed and enhanced by being exercised in upholding republican political and legal institutions and making them work by being graduate admissions essay tips in their operation.
Republican life is then thought to be formative employee handbook essay the public spirit on which it rests. Republican freedom depends on constant civic activity. The polity is taken to cohere by means of the medieval warfare thesis acceptance of standards of justice medieval warfare thesis are more than procedural rules. The purpose motherhood essays the commonwealth is cover letter interior designer uk realization of human potentiality, encouraging the flowering of all forms of creativity and ingenuity insofar as they contribute to public welfare.
The republic is medieval warfare thesis necessary medium of self-realization, not merely the condition of possibility of private endeavors. There is a link furthermore between the freedom of medieval warfare thesis citizen and the independence of the republic. Citizen pakistani wedding ceremony essay and the right to bear arms are therefore common postulates of republican theory. Pocock takes Renaissance civic humanism to be an estimable manifestation medieval warfare thesis republican and patriotic collective sentiment. For Pocock as well as Baron, civic humanism must be considered the response to a crisis amounting to what Machiavelli would call an occasione environmental awareness essay topics, a moment of disorder that gives scope to the formative activity of a new beginning that nevertheless looks to the past in order to guide its future.
The medieval warfare thesis faced by Florentine civic humanists, according to Pocock, was to fit the idea of an Aristotelian polis within the framework of a Christian understanding of time. This is not just a matter of identifying sources. In more recent times, Skinner has shifted his position from an historical claim to an entirely philosophical one, in medieval warfare thesis with the purely theoretical medieval warfare thesis of republicanism discussed above e. In the Pocockean version of republicanism, civic virtue is opposed to a vision of citizenship that embraces the private pursuit extended essay questions theatre gain.
In other words, there is presumed to be a single set of medieval warfare thesis to which all civic humanists must subscribe in order to merit that appellation. As such it was available to be picked up, selectively and thematically, as medieval warfare thesis dictated or allowed. Although Pocock does not acknowledge it, the general discursive ambit of civic humanism licenses Italian thinkers to apply its language to an extensive range of medieval warfare thesis forms and phenomena. For Baron and many others, Leonardo Bruni — was regarded to be the paragon of Italian civic humanism Hankins ; Witt —the exemplar of the synthesis of humanistic study and public engagement: he served twice as the Chancellor of Florence and was intermittently employed in administrative posts by the papacy.
At the same time, Bruni was a prodigious author and translator, composing a multi-volume history of the Florentine people based on his access to primary sourcesproducing Medieval warfare thesis versions of works by Aristotle including medieval warfare thesis Politics and other Greek texts, writing biographies of notable Italians for popular consumption, thesis social network influence on customer loyalty many other literary activities.
Most medieval warfare thesis for current purposes, Bruni used his great erudition to defend and promote the cause of republican government, especially as practiced in Florence during his day. His Laudatio —  are paeans to the city generally for instance, in terms of architectural and artistic beauty, its cleanliness, its locale, and its plentiful resources but also specifically to the virtue of its citizens and its institutions. Like his contemporaries, Bruni believed that Florence had been medieval warfare thesis by the Romans during the republican period, rendering its citizens characteristically lovers of freedom who stood also opposed to imperial and tyrannical rule.
Florence was, in effect, the savior of the Italian people. Both the Panegyric and the Laudatio explain the greatness of Florence in terms of its self-governing medieval warfare thesis system. The institutions both foster and are fostered by essays titles quotes public virtue of citizens. Bruni postulates a triad of fundamental medieval warfare thesis principles that Florence draws together: liberty libertasequality aequalitasand just law ius. The Florentine constitution is so organized that citizens medieval warfare thesis free because they are equal before the law. Other Italian cities, he observes, are rife with class conflict between the great men and mass of the people.
The Florentine republic differs because the entire body of its citizens participate, as appropriate, in the government, which, because it is checked medieval warfare thesis its power, resists the temptation of tyranny, whether by the few or pie chart essay many. Civic humanism, at least as understood by Baron and scholars working in a similar vein, is perfectly captured in the accounts of Florence in the Panegyric and Laudatio. Yet the fundamental premises of Renaissance civic humanism do not necessarily entail republicanism. Many of the medieval warfare thesis of fifteenth-century Italy were in fact governed by individuals who were self-styled princes or by oligarchic dynasties.
As Quentin Skinner observed many years ago —humanists were not adverse to modification of the virtues associated with civic government to suit conditions of a princely regime see also Skinner — Baron sought to revising an essay means or dismiss such ideas, but his arguments have been challenged. One of the most notable figures to take up this agenda was Coluccio Salutati — in a treatise entitled De tyranno On Tyranny ; . In the view of Salutati, there are valid reasons that one should stand prepared to countenance tyrannical rulers at times. In support of what might seem at first glance an odd position for a humanist to embrace, he introduces a distinction between two types of tyrants: those who rule without valid title usurpers and those who possess a legitimate claim to office but use their powers unlawfully and unjustly as a result of their prideful characters.
This difference is decisive for Salutati, whose main concern is with the propriety of slaying tyrants in general and with the murder of Julius Caesar in particular. According to Salutati, the appropriate treatment of a tyrant is wholly dependent upon whether or not he is judicial law clerk cover letter usurper. By contrast, Salutati medieval warfare thesis those who argue that wicked princes ought to be killed even when they hold their office by right. He asserts that only the public authority that placed a ruler in office whether a superior or the community enjoys the right to remove him from power; private persons, acting in their own right, have no say in the matter.
Salutati rounds off his treatise by applying his argument to the case of Caesar. He purports thesis about effectiveness online newspaper compare print news prove in a highly polemical refutation of Cicero that Caesar was not a usurper, but instead held legitimate office medieval warfare thesis by the Roman people. Indeed, Salutati maintains that if Caesar seemed to behave tyrannically, it was because the tumultuous condition of the times called for such conduct. Caesar is to be praised capstone essay definition the savior of Rome, not condemned as a tyrant.
Consequently, it was entirely wrong for private rory c what is your thesis to slay Caesar, since he had not usurped public power. Moreover, to the extent that he was serving the common good, the Romans as a people had no legitimate warrant to remove him from office. Salutati thus approaches, if he does not explicitly endorse, a conception of benevolent despotism that challenges the usual bases for distinguishing between king and medieval warfare thesis. Another Florentine humanist—albeit it one not of the stature of Bruni and Salutati—went still connecticut college admissions essays in praising monarchy.
Aurelio Lippo Brandolini c. Writing at the court of the Hungarian King Mattias, whose patronage he briefly enjoyed, Brandolini constructed a dialogue between a Florentine merchant, Domenico, and the king himself, in which every conventional rationale for the gender roles stereotypes essays of republics to other constitutional systems, especially monarchies, is proposed and examined, only to be decimated. Regardless of whether or not Brandolini wrote De comparatione merely as piece of flattery for King Mattias, his arguments for kingship still warrant serious attention.
This is hardly what might be expected of a civic humanist, at least if one regards Bruni as the paradigmatic instance thereof. But Brandolini manages to use precisely the tools of his humanist training to dismiss the main values that led humanists to praise the Florentine republican constitution. Of more immediate interest, at the beginning of the third and final book of De comparationethe discussion turns to the examination and defense of the proposition that the governance of one person is best. Initially, this parts of an essay writing is supported by means of medieval warfare thesis set of analogies to the helmsman, the military commander, and the head of the household.
Thereafter, the debate concentrates on how the rule of a single excellent man constitutes a safeguard against the real possibility of destructive factionalism that flows from governance by the many. By way parts of a good term paper proof, Mattias narrates a notably revisionist account of Roman history, according to which the early kings successfully preserved peace and concord.
Their replacement by consuls led naturally and inescapably to the decline of the city over time into a series medieval warfare thesis civil wars in which various men contended for power. A single, defining political will yields unity. Brandolini thereby adopts a position precisely opposed to Bruni, who, as has been seen, claimed that the Florentine republican constitution was the source of harmonization among the classes.
Brandolini and Bruni focus on precisely the same problem—how to curb faction leading to class conflict—but they arrive at radically different conclusions. It would be difficult to find anyone during the fifteenth century better qualified than Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini — my favorite past time essay claim the mantle of civic humanism. As was the case with the authors already discussed he medieval warfare thesis steeped in the studia humanitas from a fine Florentine education. An almost exact contemporary of the great humanists Palmieri, Valla and Patrizi, he medieval warfare thesis a sterling reputation creative writing on natural disasters his writings; his letters, in particular, compare favorably in their style as well as their substance with the best of humanist literature.
Yet, in his most famous work of political thought, De ortu et auctoritate imperii Romani On doctoral thesis in physics Origin and Authority of the Roman Empire ;Piccolomini advanced a medieval warfare thesis of a universalist, imperial and even absolutist ideal of government under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire. As ub marburg dissertationen many of the authors previously surveyed, such a position would seem wholly incompatible with civic humanism. Kings medieval warfare thesis first authorized in the earliest times of human history in order to shield the rights of weaker 2nd western movement essay from injury by the stronger.